مدیریت اوقات فراغت

نویسنده
الهه عبداله زاده
مترجم
---------------
تعداد صفحات
176 صفحه
سال نشر
1394
قطع
رقعی
ناشر
گل پوش
شابک
978-622-95101-9-3
قیمت
180000 ریال

مدیریت اوقات فراغت

تعریف لغوی- اصطلاحی

فراغت در زبان انگلیسی از Licere,Leisure و نیز Edse به معانی سهولت، آسانی، راحت، فراغت و آسایش گرفته شده است. در فرهنگ دهخدا، فراغت به معنای آسایش و استراحت، ضد گرفتاری از کار و مشغله، فراغت داشتن و فراموش کردن آمده است(فرهنگ لغت حییم،۱۳۸۵). دکتر محمد معین نیز در بیان فراغت چنین گفته است: پرداختن از فراغ، آسایش و استراحت. فراغت داشتن به معنای آسوده بودن و آرامش داشتن است(فرهنگ معین).

«اوقات فراغت» به برهه ای از زندگی شخصی اتلاق می‎گردد که صرف تلاش معاش نشده یا به حفظ موقعیت زیستی بدن اختصاص نیافته است، بنابراین اوقات فراغت به برهه ای از زمان گفته می‎شود که در آن حق انتخاب(آزادی گزینش) وجود دارد(احسانی، ۱۳۸۳).

افروز معتقد است که منظور از «اوقات فراغت» فرصت و زمانی است که انسان مسئولیت پذیر هیچ گونه تکلیفی یا کار موظفی را عهده دار نبوده، زمان در اختیار اوست که با میل و انگیزه شخصی به امر خاصی بپردازد، به دیگر سخن : فراغت زمانی است که پس از به انجام رساندن کار وتکلیف موظف روزانه، باقی مانده و انسان فرصت می‎یابد که با رغبت، علاقه و انگیزه شخصی فعالیت یا برنامه خاصی را انتخاب نماید(افروز، ۱۳۷۰).

واژه «اوقات فراغت» را اینگونه تعریف می‎کند: منظور از فراغت، سرگرمی ها، تفریحات وفعالیت‎های است که به هنگام آسودگی از کار عادی با شوق و رغبت، افراد به سوی آن رو می‎آورند(عصاره، ۱۳۷۷).

دومازدیه جامعه شناس فرانسوی و مولف کتاب به سوی یک تمدن فراغت معتقد است که «اوقات فراغت» مجموعه فعالیت‎های است که شخص پس از ارزشیابی از تعهدات و تکالیف شغلی، خانوادگی، اجتماعی با میل و اشتیاق به آن می‎پردازد و غرضش استراحت، تفریح، توسعه دانش یا به کمال رساندن شخصیت خویش، یا به ظهور رساندن استعدادها خلاقیت‎ها و با بالاخره مشارکت آزادانه در اجتماع است(عصاره، ۱۳۷۷).

به نظر می‎رسداز میان تعاریف ارائه شده تعریف دومازدیه تقریبا جامع ترین تعریف برای اوقات فراغت است که در آن علاوه بر ویژگی‎های اوقات فراغت به کارکردها و نتایج آن نیز اشاره نموده است.

اوقات فراغت- تنوعی از نگرشها، شرح‎ها و تعریف ها

واژه انگلیسی Leisure به نظر می‎آید که از واژه لاتین Licere مشتق شده به معنی «مجاز بودن» یا آزاد بودن است. از این رو واژه‎ی فرانسوی Loisir به معنی وقت آزاد و واژه‎ی Licence به معنی مجوز یا آزادی عمل می‎باشد. بنابراین واژه فراغت در زبان ما با پیچیدگی معانی همراه است. عموماً بر حسب «آزادی از اجبار»، «فرصت انتخاب»، «زمان اضافه ای که پس از انجام کار باقی مانده باشد»، یا به عنوان «زمان آزادی که پس از وظایف ضروری اجتماعی باقی می‎ماند»، تعریف می‎شود. به هر حال، طبق نظر پاریز، اوقات فراغت خود منزله‎ی پدیده ای اجتماعی در الزامات و ضرورتهای اجتماعی درگیر شده و بخوبی می‎تواند به منزله‎ی تجسمی از روش کلی زندگی به حساب آید. چنین عقیده ای فوراً مفهوم فرهنگ را به میان می‎آورد. مفهوم اوقات فراغت واکنشهای متفاوت گسترده ای را امکان پذیر می‎سازد.

عموماً اوقات فراغت مخالف کار تلقی می‎شود اما کار یک شخص می‎تواند برای دیگری فراغت باشد و فعالیتهای چندی ویژگیهای کار و اوقات فراغت تلقی می‎شود، اما بسیاری از فعالیتهای غیر کاری- از جمله فعالیتهای خانگی، اجتماعی، اختیاری و گروهی- اجبار قابل ملاحظه ای را شامل می‎شوند. بعضی اوقات فراغت را به منزله‎ی فرصتی برای استراحت و تفریح تلقی می‎کنند اما اغلب مردم اوقات فراغتشان را در کار اختصاصی، مطالعه، رشد فردی، آموزش جدی، انضباط، فشار یا نوشتن کتابی صرف می‎کنند.
takipçi satın al

مشکلات در رابطه با تعریف و شناخت اوقات فراغت بسیار زیاد است.اکثر نظریه‎ها در قرن بیستم به وجود آمده است. بسیاری از آنها از مشکلات انقلاب صنعتی ناشی شده اند. از آن موقع تا کنون صدها نظریه و تعریف درباره‎ی اوقات فراغت ارائه شده است. از میان انبوه آثار ادبی، پنج نگرش هر چند متمایز اما همپوشان قابل تمیز می‎باشند.

  1. اوقات فراغت از دیدگاه زمانی
  2. اوقات فراغت به منزله‎ی فراغت
  3. اوقات فراغت به منزله‎ی حالتی از بودن
  4. اوقات فراغت با منزله‎ی یک مفهوم کلی نگر و همه جانبه
  5. اوقات فراغت به منزله‎ی شیوه ای از زندگی(قلی نیا، ۱۳۸۳)
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